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1.07.2014

English

Expressões em inglês: 'Idioms' com Animais.

To be as blind as a bat – quando não uso meus óculos, eu fico as blind as bat, ou seja, não consigo ver quase nada porque enxergo mal sem eles.
To be as quiet as a mouse – quem é tímido, quando conhece alguém, fica as quiet as a mouse. De tão tímido e introvertido, não fala nada.
To be (as) sick as a dog- faltou ao trabalho duas vezes esta semana? Uma das poucas justificativas é você estarsick as a dog, muito doente mesmo, sem condições.
To be as sly as a fox – as foxes (raposas) são vistas como animais espertos, sagazes. Daí vem a expressão. Você precisa ser as sly as a fox para me vencer no xadrez.
To beat a dead horse- sabe quando você luta por uma causa que não vai vencer? É isso. Eu, por exemplo, fiqueibeating a dead horse quando tentei pedir aumento de salário no trabalho.
To make a monkey out of someone – Se alguém aparece no meio do escritório durante o expediente e começa a gritar com você, essa pessoa vai make a monkey out of you, ou seja, fará você passar por ridículo, parecendo bobo.
To rain cats and dogs – na Flórida, chove muito – it rains cat and dogs no verão, é uma chuva que cai por horas, sem parar.
.

Español

Verbos en español:



Hablar: falar.Preguntar: perguntar, fazer pergunta.Escuchar: escutar, Escribir: escrever, escrever alguma coisaLlamar: chamar, Actuar: atuar,Comer: comer, alimentarBeber: beber, beber algoDormir: dormir.Despertar: despertar, se levantar.Decir: dizer, dizer algoElegir: escolher, fazer uma escolha.Oír: ouvir, Trabajar: trabalhar, ato de trabalhar.Hacer: fazer, fazer algo. Mirar: olhar, observarDibujar: desenhar, fazer desenho.Jugar: brincar, jogar.Imaginar: imaginar. usar a imaginação.Vivir: viver. Copiar: copiar, fazer cópia de algo.Pegar: colar, grudar, colar com cola.Coger: pegar, agarrar algo.Estudiar: EstudarResponder / Contestar: responder, responder a alguém. Saludar: cumprimentar, saudação.Presentar: apresentar, apresentar algo ou alguém.Describir: descrever, descrever algo ou alguém.Pensar: pensar , opinião.Intentar: Tentar, experimentar algo.


English

Phrasal Verb: Look forward to




Meaning: Wait for or anticipate something pleasant

Example: I'm LOOKING FORWARD TO meeting you.



Notes:
- Inseparable
- International English

Español



 ¿ ¿Quedar o Quedarse ??

Link permanente da imagem incorporadaMira las frases abajo:

El Banco Sud queda en la Calle Cuatro.
Él siempre se queda aquí hasta las 10:00.

En la primera frase queda significa: está ubicado.
En la segunda frase se queda significa: está en un lugar por un tiempo.

12.02.2013

Passive Voice



     You may ask: What is Passive Voice used for? And I may answer: Three main points:


  • The action is the main focus and comes in first place;
  • Who did, performed the action is not important, but if you want to tell, you have to use “by”.
  • It sounds impersonal and it’s often used in formal English and to give news (radios, newspapers, internet, Tv and further information about a subject)


     When we talk about Passive Voice, we have to bear in mind its specific structure. It’s composed by:

TO BE (Active Voice Tense) + PAST PARTICPLE (Main Verb)

     Check out these examples:


Active Voice   Susan               washes                     the car.
                         
                                               



Passive Voice:   The car                 is                  washed                   by Susan.
                           

                         



     The point in Passive Voice is to observe the Active Voice statement and after that build a new statement in Passive Voice, always observing the structure.

     Right below you’re going to find a chart with the main tenses in Active Voice and Passive Voice.



Verb Tense


Active Voice

Passive Voice
Present Simple
She washes the car.
The car is washed by her
Past Simple
She washed the car.
The car was washed by her
Future
She will wash the car.
The car will be washed by her
Conditional
She would wash the car
The car would be washed by her
Going to
She is going to wash the car.
The car is going to washed by her
Present Perfect
She has washed the car.
The car has been washed by her
Past Perfect
She had washed the car.
The car had been washed by her
Present Continuous
She is washing the car.
The car is being washed by her
Past Continuous
She was washing the car.
The car was being washed by her

Formas de tratamento em espanhol: usted, vos, tú, vosotros e ustedes.


video


video

• Tú (informal): usa-se este pronome pessoal e as estruturas que o acompanham (te, tu, etc…) para escrever ou falar com uma pessoa (singular) de confiança (amigos, família, conhecidos). Exemplo: Tú eres mi mejor amigo. / (Você é meu melhor amigo.)
• Usted (formal): usa-se este pronome pessoal e as estruturas que o acompanham (le, su, etc…) para escrever ou falar com uma pessoa (singular) com a que não temos confiança (um idoso, no trabalho, com o chefe). Exemplo: Usted necesita ayuda. / (O (a) senhor(a) precisa de ajuda.)
 Vosotros ou Vosotras (informal): usam-se estes pronomes pessoais e as estruturas que os acompanham (os, vuestro, vuestra, etc…) para escrever ou falar com várias pessoa (plural) com as que temos confiança (amigos, família, conhecidos). Exemplo: Vosotros sois mis mejores amigos. / (Vocês são meus melhorer amigos.) Este pronone é usado maioritariamente na Espanha.
• Ustedes (formal e informal): usamos este pronome pessoal e as estruturas que o acompanham (les, sus, etc…) para escrever ou falar com várias pessoas (plural) de confiança (amigos, família, conhecidos) ou também em situações formais. Exemplo: Ustedes necesitan ayuda. / (Você precisam de ajuda.) Este pronone é usado maioritariamente em América Latina, em algumas regiões de Espanha (formal e informalmente) e na Espanha maioritariamente usa-se (formalmente).
• Vos: usa-se este pronome como substituição de ”tú” em nos países da região rio-platense (Argentina, Uruguai e Paraguai) e alguns países da América Central.
Formas de tratamento
Espanha
América Latina
Formal
Informal
Formal
Informal
xx
Ustedxx
Vosotrosx
Não é muito usado, depende do país.
Ustedesxxx
VosUsado em países como Argentina, Uruguai, Paraguai e alguns países da América Central.
Espero que estas reflexões tenham sido úteis, até breve. Por último gostaria que você, estudante de espanhol, lembre que no uso do pronome ”tú” deve sempre ser acompanhado pelas estruturas informais (te, tu, etc…) e com o pronome”usted” deve ser acompanhado pelas estruturas formais (le, su, etc…), é totalmente incorreto a mistura das formas de tratamento.



Connectives 


  You may ask yourself what a connective is. It’s simple, try to imagine your skeleton without your joints, it simply doesn’t work. Without your joints you cannot bend over, run, jump, walk, or even drink a glass of water.
     That’s why connectors are so important in any language, but in English, they make your speech run smoothly and more native. So, get used to them and try to use them more often, ok?

Purpose
They are used to show the purpose of something in a conversation.
  • In order to…
  • In order that…
  • So that…
  • In an effort to…

Inference and Conclusion
They are used conclude something in a conversation.
  • Therefore…
  • So…

Result and Consequence
They are used to show a result of something or a consequence of an action in a conversation.
  • With this in mind…
  • For this reason…
  • That’s why…
  • This way…
  • In doing so…
  • So that…
  • As a result…
  • In face of…
  • In view of…

Cause
They are used to show a reason, a cause of something in a conversation.
  • Because…
  • Since…
  • As a result of…
  • Due to…


Emphasis
They are used to emphasize a point o view in a conversation.
  • Especially…
  • Mainly…
  • In particular…
  • More important…

Agreement
They are used to show agreement about a topic or a situation.
  • According to…
  • In accordance with…

Reinforcement comment
They are used to reinforce a point of view during a conversation
  • As a matter of fact…
  • In fact…
  • On the contrary…
  • Actually…

Change of subject
They are used to introduce a new and opportune subject into a conversation.
  • By the way…
  • Speaking of that…
  • Incidentally…

Reference
They are used to refer to a topic or subject during a conversation.
  • Regarding…
  • With regard to…
  • Concerning…
  • Considering…


Introduction
They are used to introduce a new topic, subject during a conversation.
  • First of all…
  • In the first place…
  • To begin with…

 Coloquialismos em Espanhol ! 



- Dar la brasa (que incomoda)
Ejemplo: Me da la brasa que constantemente me corrijas. / Me incomoda que fiques me corrigindo. 
- Darle a alguien una venada (sentirse inclinado a hacer algo sin pensar)
Ejemplo: Hoy me dio la venada de alquilar un barco y navegar hasta tarde. /Hoje sem mais nem menos decidi alugar um barco e navegar até tarde.
- Vacilar a alguien (engañar a alguien)
Ejemplo: Ese carnicero siempre me vacila, cada vez que peso la carne hay menos que la que compré. / Esse açougueiro sempre me engana, cada vez que peso a carne há menos que a que comprei. 
- Estar de broma ( seria como el não brinques en portugués)
Ejemplo: No creo que ese coche sea para mí, debes estar de broma. /Não brinques, não acredito que esse carro seja para mim.
- Hacer el chorra (hacerse el tonto)
Ejemplo: Él se hace el chorra para no pagarnos. / Ele se faz de bobo para não pagar.
- Largarse tan campante (irse sin importar nada)
Ejemplo: Después que terminamos se fue tan campante, parecía que éramos extraños. / Depois de romper ele foi embora tranquilamente, parecia que éramos estranhos.
- No haber química ( no haber atracción)
Ejemplo: María me presentó un chico muy guapo pero no hubo química. / Maria me apresentou um menino muito lindo mas não teve atração entre nós.
- Gastarse una pasta (gastar una cantidad de dinero considerable)
Ejemplo: En los quince de mi hija me tuve que gastar una pasta. / Nos quinze da minha filha teve que gastar muito dinheiro.
- Ser un capullo (ser un idiota)
Ejemplo: Juan me dejó por otra, es un capullo. / João me largou por outra, é um filho da mãe.
- Ser un partidazo (ser una buena alternativa para enamorar)
Ejemplo: Julio es un partidazo, es ingeniero y tiene una empresa sólida. / Julio é um bom partido, é engenheiro e tem uma empresa sólida.

Expressions



     When we speak another language, we have to pay attention to the expressions and how we can use them in our everyday conversation. Many times, to be considered a native speaker you’re supposed to use them naturally in your dialogues, so we’re gonna learn some of them, ok?

To let down
When you disappoint someone or someone disappoints you.

To be ashamed
When you feel embarrassed about something.

To show-off
When you have something and you want to show it to everybody.

To become aware
When you get conscious about something.

To come up with
When you arrange something , you get it from somewhere.

To make it
When you get something in you life, you reach what you’re pursuing


To bug
When you bother a person, for example, talking too much or doing something that annoys him or her.

Wanna bet?
When you’re sure about something and someone’s not, so you want to prove you’re right.

To be out of
When you don’t have more of that thing.

11.20.2013

Pronouns

Pronouns



     One of the first things you learn in English are the pronouns, but sometimes the students get confused about how to apply them on a phrase and make some mistakes that can be easily corrected. A pronoun is used to replace a noun. Sometimes it is also used to avoid repetition.
     Here are some pronouns and their uses. Let’s learn a little bit more?!


Personal Pronouns


1. Personal Pronouns: These pronouns are used to start a phrase, no matter if it’s a negative, affirmative or interrogative one. They are the subject of the phrase.


Personal Pronoun
Example
I
I’m tired.
You
You don’t like vegetables.
He
He lives in São Paulo.
She
She didn’t understand.
It
Is it cute?
We
We haven’t bought the car.
You
You aren’t teachers.
They
Are they great singers?


2. Reflexive Pronouns: These pronouns are used to talk about an action or situation referring to the subject.


Subject Pronoun
Reflexive Pronoun
Example
I
Myself
I made that cake myself.
You
Yourself
Please, do it yourself!
He
Himself
He fixed the car himself.
She
Herself
She, herself, decorated the house.
It
Itself
It can’t get water by itself.
We
Ourselves
We painted beautiful pictures ourselves.
You
Yourselves
Yourselves should do the job.
They
Themselves
They will rule the company themselves.


3. Prepositional Pronouns: These pronouns are used, commonly used in any part of the statement and they are referring to person that can be the direct object or indirect object of the phrase.


Personal
Pronouns
Prepositional
Pronouns
Example
I
Me
Maria is living with me for a couple of weeks.
You
You
I wasn’t able to talk to you.
He
Him
I love him!
She
Her
Her mother is not a great example.
It
It
Please, you can’t bring it in.
We
Us
Why doesn’t she talk to us?
You
You
I’d like thank you all!
They
Them
Please, bring them on!!!

3.1. Prepositional Pronouns (Object Form): These pronouns are used, commonly used in any part of the statement and they are referring to person that can be the direct object of the phrase. In this case you just have the direct object.


Personal
Pronouns
Prepositional
Pronouns
Example
I
Me
Are you talking to me?
You
You
I don’t know you, sorry!!
He
Him
It was a pleasure to meet him.
She
Her
I can’t wait to meet her.
It
It
She can’t afford it.
We
Us
Nobody understands us.
You
You
See you later!!
They
Them
I don’t get on well with them.


     3.2. Prepositional Pronouns (Indirect Form): These pronouns are used, commonly used in any part of the statement and they are referring to person that can be the indirect object of the phrase. In this case you have the direct object and indirect object.


Personal
Pronouns
Prepositional
Pronouns
Example
I
Me
Can you do me a favor?
You
You
Did she give you the message?
He
Him
Could you ask him a moment?
She
Her
I gave her a present.
It
It
I bought a new house to it.
We
Us
Maybe she gives us the pleasure to travel together.
You
You
Did he give the gift to you?
They
Them
Sarah brought a package of Cd’s to them.

4. Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives: These pronouns and adjectives are used to show the possession. And they can be used in two forms:


      4.1. Possessive adjective + object: Here you have to use a noun otherwise the sense is not complete.

    
Personal
Pronouns
Possessive
Pronouns
Example
I
My
Is that my book?
You
Your
That’s your car, isn’t it?
He
His
I don’t know if that is his car.
She
Her
Susan is her mother.
It
Its
I think it is its food.
We
Our
Those are our brothers.
You
Your
These are your sisters.
They
Their
I don’t know if those are their suitcases.


     4.2. Object + possessive pronoun: Here you have use the noun before the pronoun to avoid a repetition.


Personal
Pronouns
Possessive
Pronouns
Example
I
Mine
That book is mine.
You
Yours
This car is yours.
He
His
My name is Robbie and his?
She
Hers
I don’t know if that house is hers.
It
Its
That’s not my food it’s its.
We
Ours
Those dogs and cats are ours.
You
Yours
Those problems are yours.
They
Theirs
This is my car, those are theirs.

5. Demonstrative Pronouns: These pronouns are used to show the existence of an object or a person and they are classified into plural or singular. And you also have to observe if the object(s) is (are) near or far from you.


     5.1. Singular Demonstrative Pronouns. They are always related to one person or object.



Proximity
Demonstrative
Pronoun
Example
Near (Close)
This
This is my new house. Isn’t is beautiful?
Far (Distant)
That
That is her mother. Her name is Sheyla.



     5.2. Plural Demonstrative Pronouns. They are always related to two or more objects and people.



Proximity
Demonstrative
Pronoun
Example
Near (Close)
These
Whose cats and dogs are these?
Far (Distant)
Those
Those are my mother and my father.

6. Relative Pronouns: These pronouns are used to connect phases replacing person, thing, place, time, possession and cause.


Reflexive Pronouns
Replacing
Example
Who
Person
A doctor is a person who takes care of people.
Which
Thing
Where is the book which I bought in Boston?
That
Who or Which
·        A gardener is a person that takes care of gardens.
·        Where is the book that I bought in Boston?
Where
Place
São Paulo is a city where people can find a lot of cultural options.
When
Time
My childhood was a time when I was happy and I didn’t know!
Why
Cause or reason
He is the reason why she’s crying.
Whose
Possession
That’s the boy whose mother is a hooker


7. Interrogative Pronouns: These pronouns are used to build questions and generally used at the beginning of the phase.


Interrogative
Pronouns
Meaning of the
Pronouns
Example
What
Thing
What is your nationality?
How
Way
How are tou, Ted?
Why
Reason / Cause
Why are you crying?
Which
Choice
Which color do you prefer?
Who
Person
Who is your favorite singer?
Where
Place
Where were you born?
When
Time
When did she start using drugs?
How much
Uncountable nouns
How much money do you have?
How many
Countable nouns
How many cats do you have?

8. Indefinite Pronouns: These pronouns are used to replace people, things and places when you don’t want to be specific.


Indefinite Pronoun
Use
Example
Anyone / anybody
Negative or interrogative
Has anyone called me?
Anybody hasn’t called you.
Someone / somebody
Affirmative
Somebody is calling me pressingly.
No one / Nobody
Affirmative with negative sense
Nobody deserves a stupid brother.
Any
Negative or interrogative
Is the any salt on the food?
No, there isn’t any.
Some
Affirmative
There are some cats here.
No
Negative Affirmative with negative sense
There’s no Brazilian singer on the Billboard.
Anything
Negative or interrogative
Is there anything strange in the air between us?
No, there’s not anything.
Something
Affirmative
Something strange is going on here.
Nothing
Affirmative with negative sense
Nothing is better than freedom.
Anywhere
Negative or interrogative
You can’t live anywhere if you don’t respect the cultural aspects.
Somewhere
Affirmative
Somewhere over the rainbow...”
Nowhere
Affirmative with negative sense
Drugs lead you to nowhere.
A lot
All forms
There’s a lot of tension here.
Every
All forms
Every time I say goodbye I die a little bit.”
Each (one)
All forms
Each one has to take care of his or her own life.
Certain
All forms
There’s a certain doubt in the air.
More
All forms
Can you bring me more cookies?
Much
All forms
I know that much is yet to come.
Many
All forms
Many boys think they are irreplaceable.
Less
All forms
There are less green areas in big cities.
Little
All forms
“Give a little bit of your love to me”
Few
All forms
Few people really understand the meaning of the word education.
Such
All forms
Jesus, this room is such a mess.
Whole
All forms
The whole world is fighting against the violence.
Every
All forms
Every girl I know is looking for a lasting love.
Everyone
All forms
I can’t feel sorry for everyone here, just a few of you.
Everything
All forms
You can’t have everything you want.
Everywhere
All forms
I can’t forget him, everywhere I look he’s there.
Several
All forms
She bought several books, I don’t know what the themes are.